Within 'bottom-up' Nanoparticle production strategies, structures are built up by chemical processes with the selection of the respective process depending upon the chemical composition and the desired features specified for the nanoparticles. Gas phase processes are among the most common industrial-scale technologies for producing nanomaterials in powder or film form. Nanoparticles are created from the gas phase by producing a vapour of the product material using chemical or physical means. The production of the initial nanoparticles, which can be in a liquid or solid state, takes place via homogeneous nucleation. Depending on the process, further particle growth involves condensation (transition from gaseous into liquid aggregate state), chemical reaction(s) on the particle surface and/or coagulation processes (adhesion of two or more particles), as well as coalescence processes (particle fusion). Examples include processes in flame-, plasma-, laser- and hot wall reactors, yielding products such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes.
Alicat MFC’s are perfect for these applications – they are incredibly fast, have very low flow capability, are highly stable and can be tuned in situ for even greater process response.